The Story of Our Irish Ancestors
The Story of Our Irish Ancestors
The Republic of Ireland (Eire) occupies approximately 85% of the land-mass of the island, and the remaining portion is Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Within the traditional four ecclesiastical provinces of Ulster (north-east), Leinster (south-eastern Ireland including the ancient kingdom of Meath), Munster (south-west), and Connaught (or Connacht, north-west) there are 32 counties, 26 of which are within the Republic. The partition of the island dates from 1920-22. Prior to this period, the entire island was under British rule.
Ireland was first settled by hunters and fishermen around the year 6000 BC along the island's eastern coast. A Celtic-speaking people known as the Gaels came from western Europe and conquered the previous inhabitants around 600 to 150 BC. During the first years AD, Eire was organized into five kingdoms, the traditional "Five Fifths of Ireland." By 400 AD, seven independent kingdoms had evolved. The kings of these kingdoms often allied their armies to make frequent raids on neighboring Britain, which was then occupied by a Roman contingency, as well on the Continent. It was not until the 9th and 10th centuries that Ireland itself came under fierce attacks from the Vikings. Monasteries suffered great atrocities at the hands of these aggressors. In 853, the Danes invaded the island and were followed by Danish settlers who gradually assimilated into the local population and adopted Christianity. When the four ecclesiastical provinces (Ulster - northeast; Leinster - southeastern Ireland, including the ancient kingdom of Meath; Munster - southwest; and Connaught/Connacht - northwest) were created in 1152, both Gaelic and Danish elements helped form a united Church which was frowned on by the English Pope Adrian IV, who then in 1155, conferred on Henry II of England the lordship of Ireland. The Pope had hopes of curing some of Ireland's perceived ecclesiastical ills, so in 1168, with the sanction of Rome, the English invaded the island and then asserted their own authority. Many reforms were enacted dealing with the granting of land, many of which violated the traditional political and social structure of traditional Ireland.
From the latter twelfth century to about 1400, many Norman's from England moved to Ireland and settled the eastern areas, particularly around Dublin. During the reign of Edward I, or about the year 1300, surnames began to be fixed. From that period, Fitzgerald, Butler, Fitzmaurice, Grace, etc., begin to be accepted as surnames, replacing such designations as John Fitz Thomas, Theobald Fitz Walter, Oliver Fitz William, etc. Strife persisted between the native Irish and the colonists. In 1367 a law was enacted to keep the two populations separate.
From the end of the high medieval period (c.1350) to the time of just prior to the Cromwell confiscations (c.1650), County Kilkenny (and Tipperary) came to be dominated by the Butler families, headed by the earl of Ormond who at different times had ruled from Nenagh, Carrick-on-Suir and, most particularly, from Kilkenny city. The Butlers had become dominant land owners in the towns of Roscrea, Nenagh, Thurles, Cahir, Gowran, Knocktopher, Inistioge and Callan thereby controlling the core areas of the economy. The Ormond Butler lands of Kilkenny practically commanded all the frontier territories of the county, as well as part of the rich middle core from Dunmore in the north to the former monastic lands of Jerpoint. Lord Mountgarret (of Butler ancestry) dominated the lowlands along the strategic territories fronting the former Gaelic zone to the north. Likewise other key Ormond allies held frontier lands bordering the county, including the Graces to the northwest, and the Purcells and the Cantwells to the northeast. In addition, underneath the Butler overlordship, the head tenants on the individual manors were for the most part lesser Butlers, or members of other leading English landed families.
In 1495, Henry VII extended English law over the entirety of Ireland and assumed supremacy over the existing Irish parliament. When Henry VIII became king, he tried to separate the Irish Church from the Papacy, much as he had done in England. Instead he intensified Irish resolve toward the English. By the time Queen Elizabeth ascended the English thrown, Roman Catholicism became linked with Irish sentiment, and the Irish refused to accept English imposed ecclesiastical change. Mounting English domination was also being met with greater Irish resistance. During the 1560s, the English suppressed a revolt in Ulster, and Queen Elizabeth took the opportunity to expropriate all lands and settle the province with Englishmen. By 1660, these new English settlers had become well seated, and English law prevailed throughout the land.
During the reign of James I (ruled 1603-1625), Catholic schools were closed and children were taught in Protestant institutions. Soon the old distinctions of Irish, Anglo-Irish, and English became realigned to Catholic and Protestant, although the island remained overwhelmingly Catholic. It was during this period that the emigration trend began.
Cromwell took firm control of England, he invoked strict rule over Ireland and confiscated all Catholic holdings. The arrival of Oliver Cromwell's army in County Kilkenny by 1650, dealt a devastating blow to the Old English (Anglo-Norman Catholic) landed gentry. Following defeat, many families remained on as the tenantry of the county, while others transplanted themselves into Connacht. By the end of the seventeenth century this class had largely been replaced by New English Protestant landlords, many of whom were Cromwellian officers, soldiers and supporters whose pay had been satisfied by land grants. Still a large part of Kilkenny was controlled by the Duke of Ormond and other Butler lands. Cromwellian landholders included, among others, Symon Eaton and Theophilus Eaton, Jr.
Sir Theophilus Eaton, Jr. of Pole [Ed. Note: This reference to Theo, Jr. of Pole appears in many entries, and I am curious as to its origin. For further information on "Pole," and perhaps later references to continuation of family, i.e., George Eaton, esq. (1828-1829) and Rev. George Eaton (1873), see Cheshire Connections] and of Dublin was baptized on March 11, 1630 St. Stephen's Coleman St., London, Middlesex, England. After leaving the New Haven Colony after his father, Theophilus Eaton's death, and returning to England with his mother, Anne Lloyd Eaton, he moved to Dublin, Ireland. Theophilus, Jr. had sons Richard and John, and a daughter Anne, b. May 9, 1658. Dublin, Ireland records state that Theophilus, Jr. married (second time) in 1667, Anne King, and his will was probated in 1668. LDS records indicate Theophilus, Jr. died in 1689 and that his middle name was Stone. Theophilus, Jr.'s daughter, Anne, m. Col. Thomas Maunsell. In the fourth generation after Theophilus, Jr., there were 9 Eaton males.Following Cromwell's death, the Irish renewed their claims on their historic lands. After some successes, in 1690 the Irish defeated the English at Londonderry and signed a treaty with London that granted them a number of rights, only to see it rejected by the Protestant dominated Irish parliament. By the late 1600's, the Williamite victory in Ireland was followed by the confiscation of most 'Jacobite' estates.
This new landed gentry bore little resemblance to the Ireland envisioned by the Cromwellian land commissioners. The old Catholic order had been destroyed but it had been replaced, not with Protestant yeomanry, but by a handful of powerful Protestant landowners, many of whom were non-residents. Kilkenny's tenantry remained Catholic, largely Old Irish, as it had been before 1641, but it was augmented by many former Old English proprietors. The Cromwellian commissioners had not intended to lay the basis of a narrow gentry class, but the failure of the majority of Kilkenny's grantees to take possesion or take up residence upon their lands, allowed a small number of enterprising men to gain possession of vast amounts of land.
The list of the Williamite base of the landed ascendancy in Kilkenny included, among others, John Eaton, grandson of Theophilus, Jr. who owned property in Goresbridge which was named Mount Eaton. This property had previously been owned by the O’Ryan family, ‘The Princes of Idrone’, who lost possession during the Cromwellian invasion. The Eatons had a vault near Grange Sylvae Church, which was presented to Powerstown Church of Goresbridge. A very interesting story is told about how the Mount Eaton fell to the Loftus family.
The Loftus family were landlords who lived in The Hook in South County Wexford. One of the Loftus family won Mount Eaton on a game of cards as well as the 1700 acres of land that went with it. The story goes that John Eaton of Powers Court, Goresbridge, grandson of Theophilus Eaton, Jr., lost all his worldly possessions to the Loftus family, but somehow remained in possession for a period of time accompanied on all occasions by two thugs armed with pike and blunderbuss, toward of any of Loftus's summonses servers. He finally reached a compromise and allowed Loftus to take possession of the estate, retaining a tenancy for life of his own house, which Loftus surrounded with a high wall when he built Mount Loftus. In 1809, John's granddaughter, Elizabeth, who was a friend of the Beauchamp Colcloughs and daughter of the Beauchamp's legal advisor, James Eaton, met and married Dudley who was staying with the Beauchamp Colcloughs, at Kildavin. Dudley was either son of John of Ballyteige or son of "Sir" Vesey by Mary Connors, the daughter of the gate keeper at Duffry Hall who had 3 children by Vesey - Dudley, Vesey and Margaret. See also Biography: John Dudley Eaton.
Eaton of Ireland
The rift between adherents of the two religions broadened. By 1727, Catholics were excluded from all public office and denied the right to vote. Although some measured attempts at reconciliation were made nearing the end of the century, for the most part relations between the two factions remained poor.
Another contenter to these factions was that of the Ulster-Scots. An Ulster-Scot is a term used primarily in England and Ireland to refer to the Scots who migrated to the northern province of Ireland (Ulster) beginning about 1605. In North America they are frequently referred to as 'Scotch-Irish' or 'Ulster-Irish,' a very misleading term since few had any Irish blood. By whatever name, these terms most commonly refer to those who settled in the northern counties of Ireland during the Plantation scheme of the 18th century, however, there were Scots in Ireland as early as the l400s. Until the early 1800s, there continued a steady stream of Highland Scots migrating to the north of Ireland as a result of the highland clearances in Scotland.
The majority of Scots who migrated to the north of Ireland came as part of this organized settlement scheme of 1605-1697. Plantation settlements were confined to the Province of Ulster, in the counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh and Derry. As many as 200,000 Lowland Scots crossed the North Channel to settle in Ulster in this approximately 90 year period. The Plantation of Ulster took place in two stages. The first stage was confined to the eastern counties of Antrim and Down. The second stage of settlement a project of state, conceived, planned, and closely supervised by the British governments of England and Ireland. The plantations included settlers from England and Scotland, although Scots outnumbered those from England by a ratio of 20 to 1. The primary purpose of the plantation scheme was to populate the northern counties of Ireland with loyal British subjects, to counterbalance the native Irish. In the early years of the Plantation, the majority of the settlers were Lowland and Border Scots seeking a better life.
Prior to l707, Scotland was a distinct Kingdom from England, governed by its own laws, with its own manners and customs. Over a period of several centuries, there was almost constant war between England and Scotland. The battles took place in the border counties of both countries and the people who lived there, whether English or Scottish, were living in a war zone. This made their lives quite different than anywhere else in the British Isles; they had much more in common with each other than with the rest of England or the rest of Scotland. The men were very warrior-like and often away at battle. They lived with constant economic oppression because soldiers trampled their crops, rustlers stole their livestock, taxes were high, and wages were low. The border kept changing; sometimes both countries claimed the border counties at once. These were the men and women who settled in the province of Ulster, Ireland during the great Plantation period of the 17th century. It was primarily their descendants who became the wave of immigrants to the New World. A few native Irish came with them, but most of the people in this migration were of English or Scottish extraction who had been in Ireland at least four generations. The reason for this migration was much different than previous immigrants. The yearning for religious freedom was there, but for the most part it involved the pursuit of material betterment. They were not the poorest of the poor (those people didn't have enough money to migrate), but they were mostly from the economic lower class. They were farmers and semi-skilled craftsmen. They were of mixed religious backgrounds. The largest number were Presbyterian, but there were Anglicans and other Protestant Denominations represented as well. In spite of their poverty, they were a very proud people.
One of the best known Scots-Irish familes was that of industrialist Timothy Eaton who was responsible for Eatons of Canada.
Timothy's father was John Eaton, born 1784 of Scottish origin in Clougher, Co. Antrim, in that part of N. Ireland where many of the first Scots-Irish familes settled. In 1823, John married Margaret Craig, born 1796 in/of Kirkinriola, Co. Antrim, N. Ireland. Their children were Robert b: 1816, Eliza b: 1819, Mary Anne b: 1821, Margaret b: 1824 in Ballymena, John b: 1827, Nancy b: 1829, Sarah b: 1831, James b: 1832 and Timothy Eaton b: Jul 1834.Another was that of Daniel Eaton who was born in Antrim Co, Ireland, Sept. 26, 1827.
Daniel's parents were born in Scotland, but moved to North Ireland, where they settled and raised a family of five sons. Daniel, at the age of 22, married Mary McClintock on August 15, 1848. Mary was born in Antrim Co. Ireland on Nov. 8, 1829. Seven years after their marriage, 11 Sep 1853, they left Ireland and moved to America, settling first in Kendall County, IL. In 1862, they moved to Jackson township. Ten children were born to this union but only these survived: Joseph, Daniel, Robert, Nancy (Eib), Ann (Jacobson) and Mary (Ralf). Daniel Eaton died circa 1906 and was survived by his widow and five children, as well as one brother, Matthew, who lived in Ireland, another brother, John, who lived in Joliet, IL, 18 grandchildren and 4 great-grandchildren. Daniel was buried in Brown Cemetery.During the 1800s, many Scotch-Irish settlers came to what is now Giles County, VA which was then known as the Irish settlement. Giles County was formed on 1st May 1806 by an act of the General Assembly of Virginia that was passed on 16 January 1806. Among the early settlers were the Eatons, Staffords, Egglestons, Johnstons and others.
Joseph Eaton, born 1771, was the son of Joseph Eaton and Elizabeth Boyd Beatty who were born in England but then lived in County Fermanagh, Ireland where they died. In May 1802, Joseph, his family and his siblings, Nancy, Margaret, David and Jane left out of county Fermanagh, Parish of Kilskeny, bound for America. The large Eaton family landed in Philadelphia where they remained for several years, finally settling in Walkers Creek, Giles County, Virginia.Most of the Ulster Scots or Scotch-Irish immigrants were taming the wild Frontier and founding great institutions more than a hundred years before the great Potato Famine caused a flood of emigration from the rest of Ireland. Descendants of these early Ulster settlers today number upwards of 25 million.
Joseph had married Catherine in Ireland where their 5 children were born: Charles G., John, George, Catherine and Jane. John Eaton was born circa 1795 in County Cork, Ireland and was around 6 years old when his family came to America. He grew up in the rolling hills of Virginia, and on October 3, 1816, married another young Irish immigrant, Susanna Linsey who was born on May 1, 1798 in Ireland. Most of their 13 children were born in Virginia: Joseph, Thomas, William, Nancy, Charles, Catherine, Samuel and Margaret; John G., Susannah, James and Amanda were born after the family moved to the rich farm lands of La Porte County, Indiana. Their descendants were found for generations in the mid-west heartlands.
There was also a Coly Eaton listed on the 1806 Personal Property Tax List for Giles County, Virginia; Henry Eaton, physician, was listed on Thomson's Mercantile and Professional Directory - Virginia - 1851
In 1798, a revolt in Ireland set in motion a series of events that led the Irish to relinquish their own parliament. On 1 Jan 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland came into existence. Not surprisingly, the union in Ireland was highly unpopular, and relations continued to deteriorate between the Catholic and Protestant populations. During the 1830s, a movement began to repeal the union, but found little favor in Protestant Ulster, although growing prosperity kept many committed to the legislative union with Britain. Catholic areas of Ireland fared less well and, during the 1840s when the potato crops failed, a devastating famine resulted. Between 1841 and 1851, Ireland's population fell from 8.2 million to 6.6 million through starvation, disease and emigration, particularly to the United States. These were the pioneers who have made a huge - and often unsung - contribution to the making of America over the past three centuries. Although the famine itself probably resulted in about 1 million deaths between 1845 and 1852, the famine is also seen as the symbol of the exploitation of a whole nation by its oppressors. It was, however much more than a mere symbol. The economic and social influences of the famine were considerable.
One of the most obvious effects of the famine was emigration which caused the population to drop by a further 3 million. About 1 million of these are estimated to have emigrated in the immediate famine period, with the depression that followed continuing the decline until the second half of the 20th century. These migrants largely ended up in North America, with some in Australia and in Britain. Between 1845 and 1855, 1.5 million people left for good. In 1845, emigration was at the pre-famine rate of 50,000 per year. In 1846, 100,000 left. It peaked in 1847, when 250,000 left. Over the next 5 years it averaged 200,000 per year, before the numbers fell off. By 1855, the rate was down to 70,000 per year . In the period over the famine decade 1841-1850, 1.3 million people emigrated overseas . Of these, 70% went to the USA, 28% to Canada and 2% to Australia. Most people paid their own fares to make the trip, although perhaps 3% had their fares paid by their Landlords . The cheapest fares were to Canada, around 55 shillings, while a fare to the USA cost between 70 shillings and £5 (100 shillings).
Let's follow one family from County Kerry, Ireland:
Printed and Published [c. 1910]
by Guy & Co. Ltd.
70 Patrick St., Cork
Killarney, Co. Kerry
1911 Census Castlegregory, County Kerry
Ellis Island Records – Immigrants from Castlegregory
County Kerry, Ireland
|dd/mm/yr||Ship Port||Destination or Address||Nearest Relative In US (Note)||Page Line#|
|Eaton, Anna||23||S||24/10/1921||Cedric Queenstown||sister, Mrs F. O'Donnell, 79 Underhill Ave, Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle (shorthand typist)||109 #26|
|Eaton, John||21||S||12/11/1920||Baltic Queenstown||brother in law, Frank O'Donnell, 379 St Mark's Ave., Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||58 #25|
|Eaton, Julia||22||S||7/09/1912||Celtic Queenstown||aunt, Mrs Margaret Nolan, 379 St Mark's Ave, Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||55 #11|
|Eaton, Julia||29||S||12/11/1920||Baltic Queenstown||brother in law, Frank O'Donnell, 379 St Mark's Ave., Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||58 #24|
|Eaton, Maggie||19||S||7/09/1912||Celtic Queenstown||aunt, Mrs Margaret Nolan, 379 St Mark's Ave, Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||55 #12|
|Eaton, Margaret||27||S||17/07/1920||Celtic Queenstown||aunt, Mrs Nolan, 79 Underhill Ave., Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle (stenographer, line through)||73 #6|
|Eaton, Mary||18||S||10/5/1913||Baltic Queenstown||sister, Julia Eaton, 25 Grace Court, Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||72 #4|
|Eaton, Thomas||21||S||10/5/1913||Baltic Queenstown||sister, Julia Eaton, 25 Grace Court, Brooklyn||father, John Eaton, Castle||72 #3|
|O'Neill, Vincent||10||S||10/5/1913||Baltic Queenstown||father, Wm O'Neill, 307 W149th, NY||Grandfather, John Eaton, Castle||72 #31|
Irish Records Index, 1500-1920
After the fire at the Dublin Record Office in 1922, the government appealed for Irish residents to donate any copies of records they possessed. This appeal yielded a large and widely varied collection of information that the Family History Library in Salt Lake City microfilmed in the 1960s. This database is an index to these records now in possession of the Library. Each entry reveals the person's name, date of record, and residence in Ireland. More importantly, the microfilm, box, and item numbers are provided to aid the researcher in obtaining a copy of the original record. These records include histories, pedigrees, parish registers, probates, and orphan's court records. For those seeking Irish ancestors, this index can be a tremendous aid.
Last Name, Given Name, Status, Date, Location, Film # T, Box & Order #, Item Order
EATON Burleigh (Gent) 1770 Dublin 592952 1013 of 1013 Sec 2 318 of 354
EATON Katharine (Sp) 1796 Wicklow 101019 Section 1 20 of 43
EATON Peter (108 years old - Bur) 1696 St Bride, Dublin 592955 1384, pg 15 88 of 159
EATON Richard (Goldsmith) 1770 Dublin City 592952 1013 of 1013 Sec 2 318 of 354
EATON Robert 1901 592943 M3888 78 of 78
EATON Simon (Sir) (Bart) 1696 Limerick/London 581931 T12765b, p 60 86 of 133
The Irish also contributed significantly to the development of New South Wales and New Zealand society and, today, around 20% of New Zealanders have Irish ancestry. The following Eaton lineage is one of a Scots-Irish family, with roots probably amongst the reivers of the West Border Marches of the Scottish Lowlands, who may have initially arrived in Ireland with the Jacobean Plantation of Ulster (1609) or shortly thereafter. The earliest individuals identified lived in the Tyrone / Fermanagh region of northern Ireland, with later emigration to New South Wales in Australia. Related families emigrated to Canada and the United States.
Joseph Eaton, farmer of Carran townland near Trillick Co Tyron, Ireland, married Rebecca Brien on 25 November 1802. Rebecca was born in 1782 in Ireland; died 9 March 1863 and was buried at Bullock Flat. Children of Joseph and Rebecca Eaton included:The first Irish in New Zealand were frequently transient whalers, sealers, traders, and the occasional convict from New South Wales. For example:
David Eaton (born 1803, died in Ireland), Henry Eaton (born 1806, died in Ireland), (Dr) John Eaton (born 1809, died 1889; John married Sarah Liddell (1815…1888) in 1861; there was no issue to this marriage.) John Eaton graduated as a Doctor of Medicine from Trinity College, Dublin IRL, on 16 July 1835, and apparently worked as a ship’s surgeon before settling in the Fish River district of New South Wales in 1854. The renowned Dr John Eaton, an active farmer, died in 1889 at Oberon NSW, William Eaton (born 1812, died 1874; married Eliza Scott and, as a widower, arrived in NSW in 1861 after which he married Jane Falls (1866-1910)), William died at Oberon on 15 May 1874; Edward Eaton (born 1813, died in Ireland), Joseph Eaton (born 1814, died in Ireland; married Faithy Buchanan, 18 December 1848), their son William emigrated to NSW in 1878. George Eaton (born 1816, died Young), Rebecca Eaton (born 1821, died Young), Ann Jane Eaton (born 1822, died 8 July 1888; emigrated to Victoria in March 1858 aboard the Shooting Star, migrating to New South Wales soon afterwards. Ann, with her younger brother Robert and his family, was following her sister Elizabeth who had emigrated as Elizabeth Fleming aboard the Garland in 1851, accompanied by husband Thomas; in 1859 Ann married Henry Brien (1837-1921)), Ann Jane Brien nee Eaton died 8 July 1888. Henry Brien died 4 September 1921. Elizabeth Eaton (born 24 July 1825, died 21 August 1894 At Oberon; married Thomas Fleming (1816-1898)) and Robert Coleman Eaton (born 1827, died 1898; married Sarah Beatty (1832-1904)). Robert and Sarah Eaton emigrated to Australia, arriving in Port Phillip in February 1858 aboard the Shooting Star, apparently proceeding later that year to New South Wales. Robert died 3 January 1898 and was buried in the CoE section of Oberon General Cemetery. Sarah died 30 March 1904 at "Apple Grove", Fish River Creek near Oberon NSW and was buried next day, beside her husband.
Surname, First Name, Reb, Ship, Tried, Trial Place, Term, DOB, Native Place, Remarks
Eaton, Charles, Archduke Charles (1813), 1812, Carlow Co, 7,
Eaton, John, Mangles (2) , 1822, Kerry Co, 7, 1796, Kerry Co, Butcher
(See alsoTales from New Zealand and Irish Convicts to NSW 1791-1825
Although many of our Irish ancestors may remain elusive as to actual documented records, it is known through family tradition that as many as 70 million people in the USA, Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand and other countries descend from those Irish who through choice, or more often economic necessity, left their native land to seek a better life elsewhere. Generations of their descendants cannot but celebrate the pioneering spirit and dedication to family of their Irish ancestors which has afforded them just such an opportunity.
Sources:our article goes here.
The Nationalist Archives 9/15/2000 Excerpts from Kilkenny History and Society Governor Theophilus Eaton of New Haven, Connecticut, and his Ancestry Author: Helen Schatvet Ullmann, CG Abbrev: Ullmann Publication: Acton, Mass., 2001 Abbrev: "Theophilus Eaton" Note: A copy of this is also at the New England Historic Genealogical Society. 1956 book, The Great Famine: Studies in Irish History 1845-52 (Dudley-Edwards and Williams) which was written to commemorate the centenary of the Famine. Akenson, DH; The Irish Diaspora, PD Meany Company Inc, Ontario, 1993 Edwards, RD; Williams, TD, The Great Famine; Studies in Irish History 1845-52, Lilliput Press, 1956, Re-released 1997. J and J Limited Company. Index to Irish Wills, Vol. 1-2. Salt Lake City, UT: J and J Limited Company, 1998. The records in this database can be found at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. Films: 101011-25, 257841-3, 496361-95, 579477-8, 581925-33, 592932-44, 592952-4, 593622-49, 593653-8, 595358-70, 595937-8, and 823473-5. "History of Will County, Illinois," by Wm. LeBaron, Jr., & Co. (1878) The Ulster-Scots Society of America